When you load the save that you posted, are the planets still invisible? What I mean is, can you confirm that specifically loading that save reproduces the issue for you, and not that it is a save you made while still in the game with the invisible planets that you hadn't tried specifically reloading?
I ask because loading the save does not reproduce the issue for me, I can see the two planets around that star in the tiles that are empty in your screenshot. If loading the save doesn't reproduce it for you either, that means it's probably some bug in how those planets get uncovered in the first place that gets fixed when the game is loaded, which I can try to repro instead. If it DOES still repro for you, I'd instead try to figure out what is different between our two computers or games. Thanks for any additional info about this.