What you are asking is a little complicated if you want it just to work on your ships/your weapons or specific weapons. As the globals are just that rules for all weapons. So if you change the rof (cool down) there then all of that weapon type will have that rof for you and for the ai.
The damage is controlled by the components so modding that to taste works fine. Though what you are proposing is totally overpowered and will break the base game balance and there isn't really a good way to balance it out because defenses are very week to attacks per second compared to pure damage. 1 dmg every .5 seconds will rip through shields pd and armor faster than someone doing 100 damage every 10 seconds. Even though the dps of the other one is higher since defenses act really funky in this game.
I have never tried to make the game animate that fast i typically mod out animations to make battles cleaner. (having weapons with no animation combined with ones that do. So you can load up the ship to the right power level but you do not shoot 100s of missiles kinetics.
Also another think to think about is how galciv animates weapons. Now this is not 100% but the ships tend to animate weapon effects from weapons placed on the ship and from ship parts that are classified as a weapon. So if your design has "fake" weapons on it from the design process there is a chance those will animate the weapon firing effect. Also note if you say put 20 kinetic weapons on a ship the game should (but not always) animate 1 shot for every single on of those placed. So with what you are proposing what will work for 1 equipped weapon will be a mess if you put a lot of weapons on a ship. That said animations are not actually what is happening, if you have 100 kinetic attack across 10 weapons it may show 10 shots but the game just cares about weapon attach as 1 # in hits/misses/defenses. So you are not hitting the enemy ship 10 times for 10 just once for 100 potential dmg.
Below is just what im riffing off the top of my head so i have no idea if there is a better way, there probably is.
Now the best way to get something close just for the player would be to(this is off the top of my head and may not get the desired effect it will take trial and error or there may be a better way most modding has no guides so you just figure it out yourself)
Make a custom weapon component that has the animation fx you like(there is a good white kinetic fx that i would use), figure out through trial and error the correct cooldown to get it to fire as fast as you want ,make it have a stat to reduce the cooldown that amount of that weapon type assuming the game can even achieve that quickness. (Also note that cooldown reduction stats work ship wide so lets say you are using op kinetic weapon we are making but you want to add normal kinetic weapons to the ship, their cooldowns will also be reduced so its all or nothing) Also make this one per ship allowed.
Then you would need to balance all weapon damage around that dps so the dps is the same even though as stated above anything that shoots that fast even at low dmg will be very op(this is assuming the game will allow you to have such small #s for dmg they like to limit stuff around 3 decimal places). Then you need to make copies of all the other weapons on that weapon type and give those weapon type animations that do not show anything can be achieved by creating a custom weapon fx that basically is not there, either by being too small or invisible. Finally you need to create a custom ability that only your faction has and assign a requirement that all the new stuff you made/modded require that ability. That way the ai who do not have this ability will not have access to all the op stuff you made. Because if the AI had access to this they will all stack their ships and just rip you apart.
The above should work as i do similar the opposite to make custom weapons that just fire once. This idea sounds interesting im going to fart around with it when i get home and see if i can make something work.
If the above is too much you can always just reduce the cooldown of a weapon to a small # and change the damage of the item and it should work. But if you place 5-10 of a super fast weapon it will be a mess and im not sure the game could handle like 20-30 of them shooting at fractions of seconds.