I'm not seeing any bug. He hit you for 27, damage absorbed by your shields (damage text in yellow). He hit you for 27 again, damage absorbed by shields (damage text in yellow). You fired and missed. He hit you again and your shields were taken out by the previous 2 shots, so 27 damage done to your hull (damage text in red). You fired at him and missed. You fired at him again and hit for 32 damage, which apparently his shields did not mitigate, so you did 32 damage to his hull (damage text in red). He shot you and did full damage again since your shields are already down, the full damage of the beam attack was enough to destroy you (text in red).
A quick overview of combat in GC3 in case you hadn't read about it yet. Beams have longer range than kinetic attacks. Thus he got off 2 shots before you even started firing. Your defenses are depleted by damage, so once your defenses have been broken through, they are GONE. Your shields do not absorb 48 damage from every shot, they can only absorb 48 damage total before they are gone. So he hit you 4 times, twice before you even got in range to shoot. The first 2 hits you took were absorbed by your shields, and took the shields down. The second 2 hits destroyed you.
I am not one of the devs, so I can't be absolutely certain this is exactly how the coding for your battle went. That is just my synopsis from what I have observed as a player so far.
So nope, I don't see any bugs here.